Inflammatory Breast CancerBy: Tejal Patel

WHAT IS INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER (IBC)?

Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare type of breast cancer that develops rapidly, making the affected breast red, swollen and tender.


FACTS ABOUT INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

  • Inflammatory breast cancer is more common and diagnosed at younger ages in African American women than in white women.

  • more common in obese women than in women of normal weight.

  • Inflammatory breast cancer is the most aggressive form of breast cancer.

  • Some cases of inflammatory breast cancer can be passed down from one generation to the next.


HOW DOES IT OCCURS?

Inflammatory breast cancer occurs when cancer cells block the lymphatic vessels in skin covering the breast, causing the characteristic red, swollen appearance of the breast.


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WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) causes a number of signs and symptoms, which most often occur together.

They develop quickly and includes:

  • Breast warmth

  • Redness involving more than one-third of the breast

  • Thickening (edema/swelling) of the skin of the breast

  • The breast may become harder

  • Pitting or ridging of the skin of the breast so that it may look like orange peel


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WHO DOES IT AFFECTS?

  • Women are more likely to be diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer than are men. (Men can develop inflammatory breast cancer too).

  • African-American women appear to be at a higher risk than white women.

  • IBC tends to develop at a younger age than the more common form of breast cancer.

  • Overweight or obese women


THE TREATMENT OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER:

CHEMOTHERAPY:

  • the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells

  • usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide

  • given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication

SURGERY:

  • the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation

  • It is also used to examine the surrounding axillary or underarm lymph nodes

  • Reconstructive or plastic surgery

- Women who receive a mastectomy may want to consider having breast reconstruction, which is a surgery that rebuilds the breast.

- Reconstruction can be done with tissue from another part of the body, or with synthetic or artificial implants.

RADIATION THERAPY:

  • the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells

TARGETED THERAPY:

  • a treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival.

  • These treatments are very focused and work differently than chemotherapy.

  • This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to healthy cells.


PROGNOSIS:

  • for a patient who diagnosed with cancer is often viewed as the chance that the IBC will be treated successfully and the patient will recover completely.

  • Survival Rates:

Survival rates are used by doctors as a standard way to discuss a person's prognosis.

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Stage
Median Survival
Stage III
57 months
Stage IV
21 months

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive cancer because it grows very quickly, and more likely to have spread at the time it is found. Also, it is more likely to come back again after the treatment than other types of breast cancer.


INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER VIDEO:



MORE INFORMATION ABOUT INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER:

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/inflammatorybreastcancer/inflammatory-breast-cancer-inflammatory-br-ca-symptoms

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/inflammatorybreastcancer/inflammatory-breast-cancer-inflammatory-br-ca-diagnosis

http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/inflammatorybreastcancer/inflammatory-breast-cancer-inflammatory-br-ca-aggressive






Testicular Cancer
By Kenneth Gouwens

What is Testicular cancer?
Testicular cancer is cancer that forms on both testicles which are located in the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. Although this form of cancer is rare, men aging from 15-35 have a much higher chance of having this cancer. This form of cancer is very treatable and when found in the early stages has a very high success rate of treatment.

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 width="240" height="192" caption="Image result for testicular cancer"]]

Causes
The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. However, scientists have discovered several possible causes:
  1. Chromosome changes in genes.
  2. Changes in DNA.
  3. Extra chromosome pairs in cells (chromosome 12)

Risk Factors
Risk factors of testicular cancer or factors that may increase a man's chance of developing this cancer include:
  1. Undescended Testicles (cryptorchidism)
  2. Congenital abnormalities
  3. History of testicular cancer
  4. Age

Signs and symptoms
Testicular cancer has many symptoms, but the most common one would be any change in the size, texture, and look of the testicles.

Diagnosis
Testicular cancer is usually found through self examination or a regular doctor visit. Lumps on a testicle are usually the biggest sign of testicular cancer. Every year in the U.S., an estimated 8500 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer and 350 die every year. That averages out to every hour of every day a man hears that he has testicular cancer.

Stages of Testicular cancer?
Stage I. Cancer is limited to testicle
Stage II. Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the abdomen.
Stage III. Cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Testicular cancer most commonly spreads to the lungs, liver, bones and brain.
external image testicular-cancer3.jpg

Types of Testicular Cancer
2 types of testicular cancer:
Seminoma- This from is non aggressive and radiation is a very effective way to treat it.
Nonseminoma-Grows and spreads rapidly this from is very aggressive and the recommended treatment for it is chemotherapy.
Image result for testicular cancer
Image result for testicular cancer


Image result for testicular cancer
Image result for testicular cancer


Treatment
Surgery (usually first option) - Testicle is removed and a prosthetic can be put in if requested.

Radiation Therapy-High powered energy beams target the cancerous areas, side effects include redness of the skin on the targeted spot and some soreness.

Chemotherapy- Use of drugs that kill the cancerous cells, side effects include headaches, nausea, loss of hair, weakness, fatigue, and irritability.

Prevention
There is no specific way to prevent testicular cancer as there is no known source. The best thing you can do is preform self examinations to catch the cancer early.
How to video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtmJd9DNVOU


Sources:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/testicular-cancer/basics/definition/con-20043068
http://www.medicinenet.com/testicular_cancer/article.htm
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/detailedguide/testicular-cancer-what-is-cancer
http://www.testicularcancersociety.org/tc_101.html?gclid=CLWO-PWF_M0CFQ-maQod4_ALrw


Testicular Cancer

By: Brandon Fawkes

What is Testicular Cancer?
Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. In regards to Testicular cancer It’s exactly what it sounds like: cancer of the testicles so luckily for you ladies it can’t affect you.
Quick Facts:
  • Testicular cancer is a disease when testicular cells become abnormal malignant in one or both testicles. It is the most common cancer in 20- to 35-year-old men and has two main types, seminomas and nonseminomas.
  • The exact cause of testicular cancer is not known but risk factors include undescended testicles, congenital abnormalities, kidney, penile abnormalities, and history of testicular cancer: for example, family history or personal history of testicular cancer in one testicle and being white.
  • Testicular cancer is often first detected by the patient discovering a lump or swelling in a testicle; other symptoms include testicular pain or discomfort; testicular enlargement; aches in the abdomen, back, or groin; or a fluid collection in the scrotum.
  • Testicular cancer has four stages, ranging from 0 to III. (Stage III is the most advanced cancer stage.) Some stages have sub-stages (for example, stages IA and IB) based on where the testicular cancer has spread.
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Tumor Types:
More than 90% of cancers of the testicle develop in special cells known as germ cells. These are the cells that make sperm. The 2 main types of germ cell tumors (GCTs) in men are:
  • Seminomas
  • Non-seminomas, which are made up of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and/or teratoma
  • Based on what cells the tumors are in dictates which form of Testicular Cancer you have.
  • However most cases contain BOTH of these cells so they are treated as “non-seminomas” overall.
Seminomas
  • tend to grow and spread more slowly than non-seminomas. The 2 main subtypes of these tumors are classical (or typical) seminomas and spermatocytic seminomas.
  • Classical seminoma: More than 95% of seminomas are classical. These usually occur in men between 25 and 45.
  • Spermatocytic seminoma: This rare type of seminoma tends to occur in older men. The average age of men diagnosed with spermatocytic seminoma is about 65. Spermatocytic tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less likely to spread to other parts of the body than classical seminomas.
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Non Seminomas
These types of germ cell tumors usually occur in men between their late teens and early 30s. The 4 main types of non-seminoma tumors are:
  • Embryonal carcinoma: NOT GOOD, 40% of cases and can spread out.
  • Yolk sac carcinoma: Looks like a yolk sack, typically only found in children (most common)
  • Choriocarcinoma: Very bad, its more then likely going to spread.
  • Teratoma: Very rare form.
Most tumors are a mix of different types (sometimes with a seminoma component as well), but this doesn’t change the general approach to treatment of most non-seminoma cancers.

Treatments:
Surgery: Inguinal orchiectomy and Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
Medications: Chemotherapy and Hormone therapy, prescription needed
Medical procedure: Radiation therapy
Specialists: Oncologist, Primary care provider (PCP), Urologist, Radiation oncologist, and Surgeon
Video:
__https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyzcsoA3xRw__
  • Start at 45 seconds





Cristian Silva
Skin Cancer sun.jpeg

Skin Cancer- Is known as the abnormal growth of skin cells. It is the most common type of cancer, it commonly forms from overexposure to the sun but can occur anywhere in the body.

What are the Different types of Skin Cancer?
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)
  • Melanoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

How is skin cancer diagnosed?
  1. Self-Examination
-The best time to do this is right after a shower in a well-lit room in-front of a full length mirror. Learn the patter of moles, freckles, blemishes and other marks that may already be on your skin. Check your back, arms, legs, and all other parts of body for any new freckles, moles, changes in skin.
2. If needed, seek the attention of a physician.
-If you are unsure about a freckle or a mole that you may have, or notice any changes, schedule an appointment with your physician to get a second opinion, The doctor will remove part or all of the spot and send it for lab results. (biopsy)
THE EARLIER IT IS DETECTED, THE HIGHER CHANCE IT IS TO BE TREATABLE.
The Warning Signs
-The most common sign of cancer is the change in skin, the change in the moles, and abnormal growth.

What causes skin cancer?
-Skin cancer occurs when errors (mutations) occur in the DNA of skin cells. The mutations cause the cells to grow out of control and form a mass of cancer cells.
-Begins in your skin's top layer (Epidermis)...where your skin cancer begins determines its type and your treatment options.
Who does it affect?
-Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more common among people with light skin tone, but skin cancer affects anyone. Both men and women, teenagers and rarely children.

How_to_SPOT_Skin_Cancer_Infographic.jpgjaz.png

http://bcove.me/3hpqmg86

Treatment-
If detected at an early stage and removed promptly it is almost always curable and causes minimal damage. However, left untreated, it will eventually penetrate the underlying tissues and can become disfiguring. Therefore, any suspicious growth should be seen by a physician without delay.
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Simple Excision
  • Immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy

What outcome can someone with skin cancer expect?
  • If it is caught early and properly treated, skin cancer can be cured. With a rate of almost 100 percent when treated early.
  • Even if you get a clean bill of health, you need to continue to see your dermatologist. Once a person gets skin cancer, the risk of getting another skin cancer is higher. Sometimes skin cancer returns.
  • Your dermatologist will tell you how often you should return for checkups.
  • Without early treatment, the outcome is not as favorable.
  • Skin cancer can grow deeply.
  • Removing the cancer can mean removing muscle and even bone.
  • Reconstructive surgery may be needed after the surgery to remove the skin cancer.

Here’s how to prevent skin cancer:
  • "About 90% of non-melanoma skin cancers are associated with exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation." (Skincancer.org)
  • Seek the shade, especially between 10AM-4PM.
  • Do not burn
  • Avoid tanning and UV tanning booths
  • Cover up with clothing, including a broad brimmed hat.
  • Use a broad UVA sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher every day.
  • Examine your skin
  • See a physician every year.
sunscreen.jpg


Skin Cancer--

Justyna Koscielniak

Basal Cell Carcinoma

What is it??

Basal Cell Carcinoma are uncontrolled growths of lesions that form from the outer layer of the skin. It usually looks like open sores, red patches, pink growths, shiny bumps or scars. It can be highly disfiguring, if allowed to grow but it doesn't spread beyond the tumor site. There is an estimate of 2.8 million cases of BCC that is diagnosed each year. It is also said to be the most frequently occurring from any other cancers. One out of every three new cancers are skin cancers, and a majority of it is usually BCC.

Basal-cell-carcinoma2.jpg.jpg

Some Signs to be Aware of:

  • A Open Sore that bleeds, oozes or crusts and never heals

  • Reddish Patch usually found on face, chest, shoulders, arms or legs

  • A Shiny bump that often pink,red or white (dark haired people black or brown)

  • Pink Growth that slowly enlarges and have tiny vessels

  • A Scar- Like Area that is white, yellow or even waxy

Who is at Risk?

BCC usually affects people who had a history of sun exposure. Also the people who are at the highest risks are people who have fair skin, blond or red hair, and blue, green or grey eyes. It also affects elderly people but because new cases were increasing each year, the average age of patients started to slightly decrease. It is rarely seen in children, but occasionally a teenager may be affected with the disease. Dermatologist have reported that more and more people in their twenties and thirties are being treated for this cancer. Men with BCC have outnum

bered women with the disease, but more women are getting

the disease now than in the past.

basal cell carcinoma.jpg

Treatment:

  • Mohs Micrographic Surgery- tissue around the affected area is removed to save as much tissue as possible

  • Excisional Surgery- scalpel used to remove infected area

  • Curettage and Electrodessication- infected area scraped off and heat is applied to prevent bleeding

  • Cryosurgery- liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the infected area and then it usually falls off

  • Radiation- X-ray directed at infected area; requires several treatments

  • Photodynamic Therapy- cream applied and the patient returns the next day and a light is shown on the infected area destroying sores.

  • Laser Surgery- using a carbon dioxide gun on the infected area to remove extra layers

  • Topical Treatment- cream is 80-90% effective

  • New Medication- oral- drug that can be life threatening, but approved by the FDA in 2012

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

What is it??

Squamous Cell Carcinoma is an uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells arising on the skin's upper layers. It mostly looks like scaly red patches, open sores, elevated growths with central depression, or warts, that may crust or bleed. It is mostly caused by UV exposure over a course of a lifetime. It can become disfiguring and sometimes very deadly if left to grow.

skin-cancer-carcinoma-400x400.jpg

Some Signs to be Aware of:

  • Scaly red patch that crusts or bleeds

  • An elevated growth with a central depression that sometimes bleeds

  • An open sore that bleeds and crusts and persists for weeks

  • A wart like growth that crusts and sometimes bleeds

Who is at Risk?

The most vulnerable to this disease are people who have fair skin, light hair, and blue, green, or gray eyes. Also people who have a history of substantial sun exposure are at rick. Also people who have occupations that require being long hours outdoors or ones who like to spend their free time in the sun are at risk too. People are also more likely to develop SCC if they had basal cell carsinoma before. SCC twice as frequent in men than in women and they rarely appear before age 50 and are most often seen in individuals in their 70s. The majority of skin cancers in African Americans is SCC due to preexisting inflammatory skin conditions or burn injuries,

Causes:

  • Chronic Exposure to Sunlight

  • Frequent use of tanning beds

  • Through burns, scars, ulcers, long-standing sores a sites exposed to x-rays

  • HIV or other immune deficiency diseases, chemotherapy, anti-rejection drugs, and excessive sun exposure.

Treatment:

  • Mohs Micrographic Surgery- tissue around the affected area is removed to save as much tissue as possible

  • Excisional Surgery- scalpel used to remove infected area

  • Curettage and Electrodessication- infected area scraped off and heat is applied to prevent bleeding

  • Cryosurgery- liquid nitrogen is used to freeze the infected area and then it usually falls off

  • Radiation- X-ray directed at infected area; requires several treatments

  • Photodynamic Therapy- cream applied and the patient returns the next day and a light is shown on the infected area destroying sores.

  • Laser Surgery- using a carbon dioxide gun on the infected area to remove extra layers

  • Topical Treatment- cream is 80-90% effective





What is Melanoma?
  • Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin.
  • It usually looks like a flat mole with uneven edges and a shape that is not the same on both sides.
  • These cells are called melanocytes (cells that color the skin).
  • Melanoma and other skin cancers generally develop from over-exposure to UV radiation.
  • Melanoma can occur anywhere in the body.
  • When Melanoma starts in the skin, the disease is called cutaneous melanoma. When it occurs in the eye, it is called intraocular or ocular melanoma.
  • Melanoma is more aggressive than basal cell skin cancer or squamous cell skin cancer.
  • Estimated new cases and deaths from melanoma in the United States in 2014:
    • New cases: 76,100
    • Deaths: 9,710



The ABCD rule for identifying melanoma:

images2ZHNIVXI.jpg
  • Asymmetry: one half of the mole or lesion does not match the other half
  • Border irregularity: the edges are uneven, notched, or scalloped
  • Color: pigmentation is not uniform. Melanoma may vary in color from tan to deeper brown, reddish black or deep bluish black.
  • Diameter: it is greater than 6 millimeters ( about the size of a pea)



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Who does it affect?
  • Those who have a family history of melanoma, are exposed to the sun a lot, or are exposed to artificial sources such as a tanning beds are at greater risk of getting this disease.
  • Melanoma appears to have a stronger overall impact on women than men.
  • In men, melanoma is often found in their back from the shoulders to the hips or the head and neck.
  • In women, melanoma forms most often on the arms and legs.
  • Although it is most common in adults and the risk increases with age, children and teens can also possibly get it.


Treatment and Prognosis:
  • If melanoma is recognized early, it is almost always curable, but if it’s not the cancer can advance and spread to other parts of the body; where it becomes hard to treat and can be fatal.
  • Most people with a melanoma need to have surgery. In some cases, melanomas may be treated by radiotherapy, chemotherapy and other drugs.
Surgery for melanoma:
  • Melanomas are usually removed by surgery (except when the melanoma is too advanced). The surgeon also removes some normal-looking skin around the melanoma. The purpose is to get rid of any cancer cells in the surrounding skin and prevent the melanoma from growing back at the same site.
Radiotherapy for melanoma:
  • Radiotherapy treats melanomas by using radiation to destroy or injure cancer cells. The radiation can be targeted onto cancer sites in your body. Treatment is carefully planned to do as little harm as possible to your normal body tissue.
Chemotherapy for melanoma:
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer with anti-cancer medication. The aim is to destroy cancer cells while doing the least possible damage to normal cells. The medication works by stopping cancer cells from growing and reproducing, and is usually given by injecting the medication into a vein (intravenous treatment).



Sources:
www.trialx.com
www.skincancercare.com
www.dermatologydurham.com
http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/squamous-cell-carcinoma
http://www.medicinenet.com/melanoma/page4.htm
http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/melanoma
http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/basal-cell-carcinoma





INSTRUCTIONS/ CANCER
Your group needs to cover the following types of cancer.
Squamous, basal cell carcinoma, Melanoma, Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Testicular Cancer As a group you are responsible for creating your own Wiki covering the topics assigned. You may attach files, articles, videos, pictures and/or word documents
Be prepared to give your reports orally to the class using your Wiki.
Included in your report should be a description of the disease, who it affects, treatment and prognosis.
How to use the wiki page

  1. To enter content on this page, click the EDITtab located on the top, right side of the page.
  2. Enter the information and click Save to save changes.
You can upload files or create links to external website or to a page in the wiki.
  1. To upload a file or an image, click the Fileicon on the tool bar, upload the file.
  2. Click the Link icon to enter a link to a url or link to a page in the wiki.

www.**everydayhealth.com** www.ibcresearch.org www.healthyweb.com